Ever heard of the Chaos Monkey?
It's a project at Netflix to enhance the infrastructure tolerance. The Chaos Monkey will randomly shut down some servers or block some network connections, and the system is supposed to survive to these events. It's a way to verify the high availability and tolerance of the system.
Besides a redundant infrastructure, if you think about reliability at the level of your web applications there are many questions that often remain unanswered until you get the issue in production:
- What happens if the MYSQL server is restarted? Are your connectors able to survive this event and continue to work properly afterwards?
- Is your web application still working in degraded mode when Membase is down?
- Are you sending back the right 503s when postgresql times out ?
Of course you can -- and should -- try out all these scenarios on stage while sending to your application a realistic load.
But testing these scenarios while you are building your code is also a good practice, and having automated functional tests for this is preferable.
That's where Vaurien is useful.
Vaurien is basically a Chaos Monkey for your TCP connections, we've started at Mozilla. It's fresh but it's already something people can hack with.
Vaurien is a TCP proxy between your application and any backend.
You can use it in your functional tests or even on a real deployment through the command-line.
Vaurien in your tests
If you want to run and drive a Vaurien proxy from your code, the project provides a simple class for this.
Here's an example:
import unittest from vaurien import Client, start_proxy, stop_proxy class MyTest(unittest.TestCase): def setUp(self): self.proxy_pid = start_proxy(port=8080) def tearDown(self): stop_proxy(self.proxy_pid) def test_one(self): client = Client() with client.with_handler('errors'): # do something... pass # we're back to normal here
In this test, the proxy is started and stopped before and after the test, and the Client class will let you drive its behavior.
The class interacts with the proxy through a special HTTP api, to tell it how to behave on TCP calls.
Within the with block, the proxy will error out any call by using the errors handler, so you can verify that your application is behaving as expected when it happens.
A handler is a piece of code that is called by the proxy and does whatever it wants with the incoming request. In our case it errors out :)
Vaurien provides a collections of handlers:
- normal: A transparent proxy, which doesn't modify at all the requests and responses
- delay: Adds a delay before the backend is called
- errors: Reads the packets that have been sent, then throws errors on the socket.
- hang: Reads the packets that have been sent, then hangs.
- blackout: Don't do anything -- the sockets get closed
Vaurien comes with a few handlers, but you can create your own handlers and plug them in a configuration file.
In fact that's the best way to create realistic issues: imagine that you have a very specific type of error on your LDAP server everytime your infrastructure is under heavy load. You can reproduce this issue in your handler and make sure your web application behaves as it should.
Creating new handlers is done by implementing a callable with the following signature:
def super_callable(source, dest, to_backend, name, settings, server): pass
- source and dest are the source and destination sockets.
- to_backend is a boolean that tels you if this is the communication to the proxied server or from it.
- name is the name of the callable.
- settings the settings for this callable
- server the server instance - it can be useful to look at the global settings for instance, and other utilities.
to_backend will let you impact the behavior of the proxy when data is coming in or out of the proxy.
Here is how the delay handler is specified, for instance:
def delay(source, dest, to_backend, name, settings, proxy): if to_backend: # a bit of delay before calling the backend gevent.sleep(settings.get('sleep', 1)) dest.sendall(proxy.get_data(source))
You can then simply use it in your calls as you would use another handler, by pointing the callable name.
Running Vaurien as a standalone proxy
Vaurien also comes as a command-line tool.
Let's say you want to add a delay for 20% of the requests done on google.com.
You can use the vaurien script and just run:
$ vaurien --local localhost:8000 --distant google.com:80 --behavior 20:delay
Vaurien will stream all the traffic to google.com but will add delays 20% of the time.
You can also create a ini file for this and pass it to the script:
[vaurien] distant = google.com:80 local = localhost:8000 behavior = 20:delay [handler:delay] sleep = 2
And of course you can tweak the behavior of the proxy. Here, we're defining that the delay will last for 2 seconds.
I am starting to use Vaurien in some of my functional tests, and I'd love to see if this can be a useful tool to others -- and eventually release a first version at PyPI.