How to handle large files in Plone ?

The first time I had to help out a customer (a fifty year old lady that had no interest whatsoever about computers) on a Plone-based intranet, I had to explain to her why she couldn't upload really big files.

That was really tough, as she couldn't understand why the system had such a limitation. I think she was right. If we drop the technical point of view, a sophisticated system such as Plone should provide a transparent way to upload big files and handle them smoothly on the server side, so the user doesn't feel any difference. Think about it: what's the functional difference between a big file and a small file ? Merely none, except that it's longer to put or to get.


The first problem when we deal with big files is the upload time. Browser doesn't provide any feedback, unless you install some Firefox extension or you use a dedicated protocol, such as FTP. In a web interface, there's nothing but an animated logo that is moving around just to say: "Hey, I am not dead !". Ruby On Rails guys came up with a great feature on this topic: they added in their publiser a few apis that would let client-side Javascript:
- display a progress bar; - cancel the upload at anytime.

I am not a technical guru on HTTP protocols but I am really wondering why this is not already available in Gmail... I tried myself to implement it a while ago on Zope 3 publisher, and came up with something that was working, but never had the time to polish it.

The idea is to maintain on server-side, for each ongoing uploads, some infos that can be read by the client, and a cancel API. The only important point is to provide a secure mechanism so no other client can read the infos of another client. The client-side JS code then can call asynchronously the server to display feedback, and provide a cancel button.

At this point, we may consider that it is better to use other piece of software, like Tramline, or some dedicated Apache plugin. But in a marketing point of view, I think it's really important to be able to provide this feature with an out-of-the-box Plone.

Server-side handling

OK, so our file is uploaded. My lady at the office now complains that the system is getting very slow. No wonder, her ZODB weights now several gigas... Again, functionaly speaking, that's a non-sense. Plone should be able to work with these big files without making the ZODB so heavy. The ZODB is a great thing for light objects, but was not meant to hold big chunk of data. A specific thing has to be done. In Java world, they have an advanced data storage for Content Managment System, called JSR-170, and implemented by the JCR. In this system, a tree of folders is maintained and big files are stored in blobs (Binar Large OBjectS), keeping the whole thing scalable, no matter what the users store in it.

In Zope, we don't have a lot of solutions, there's the File System Storage (FSS) product (and a few similar products) in the Plone Collective, and that's about it. The FSS provides a smart proxy over the file system, that let the ZODB breathe and the user handle his big files. But this is an extra product, created to provide a really missing core feature.

The 3.8 version of ZODB though, providen this feature now, through blobs. On Plone side, it seems that the latest Plone4Artists sprint in Boston has boosted the work in the topic and blobs will be available in Plone through ATBlobField.

This is great news, and I hope we will soon be able to make all files uses this feature transparently (big file, small file, what the difference ? they should all be stored out of the ZODB)


One of my colleague had a tough issue last week on big files. The File System Storage was not acting right when the user was downloading PDF files from the Adobe Browser plugin: the file iterator internally provided by the Zope publisher was not acting right because it doesn't support the range feature. This HTTP feature used by the plugin make it possible to get pieces of files in non-sequential orders. Though, it's not possible with an iterator to provide pieces of files without having to rewind. So iterating is of no use there. The solution would be to provide a smart system that knows who asked the file and how, to smartly instanciate an iterator or a regular accessor, maybe with a cache system for called ranges. I need to dig on ZODB blobs, maybe they already provide such a feature. If you read this and know the answer, please let me know...


There's still a lot of work in the topic, and I think the Plone4Artists project is doing a great job to enhance things. The three topics to work on are:
- cancelable upload with live feedback; - transparent use of blobs to store files; - smart downloading capabilities.

This could make a great sprint I guess, to create some kind of Plone-FSS-NG, so my Lady can upload her movies in her Plone.